Attacks on our online privacy have led to an increase in the popularity of VPNs. This important internet technology is integral to helping us retain our online freedom. No two VPN providers in the VPN industry are more popular than NordVPN and ExpressVPN. These VPNs frequently top VPN lists, and here at VPNSurfers, we are big fans of both providers. Choosing between ExpressVPN vs NordVPN is difficult.
ExpressVPN is known for its fasts server speed and ability to get around Netflix VPN blocks. NordVPN offers users strong encryption and online protection as well as a large server network.
A good VPN should offer users security, privacy, fast speeds, and the ability to access censored content online. So, is Express VPN the best VPN? Or should you go with NordVPN for secure surfing? We’ve created a side-by-side comparison of NordVPN vs ExpressVPN to help you choose the most suitable VPN for you.
At VPNSurfers we know what makes a good VPN. We’ve reviewed both ExpressVPN and NordVPN individually to decide which provider offers the best VPN service in 2020.
Security is a major thing when it comes to a good VPN. Things to look out for in a suitable VPN include solid encryption, good VPN protocols, leak protection, and impressive security features like a kill switch.
ExpressVPN, NordVPN, and virtually every other provider all face the same security risks. Hackers are constantly trying to access servers and steal information. Unfortunately, a hacker managed to access a NordVPN server in 2019, which raised questions about the efficiency of its security.
Fortunately, Nord doesn’t log data meaning that the hacker didn’t access anything confidential. But it definitely makes the provider bad, especially when compared to ExpressVPN, which hasn’t experienced any server security breaches as far as we’re aware.
However, an ExpressVPN server was seized in December 2017 after the death of the Russian Ambassador to Turkey. While this isn’t a breach, it demonstrates that authorities can take VPN servers if the law calls for it.
Both ExpressVPN and NordVPN employ AES-256 encryption, which is military-grade encryption. This is industry-standard encryption and it’s reassuring to know that both providers use it to protect your internet traffic from third parties like your Internet Service Provider with an encrypted connection. The control channel encryption (which controls data streams) is slightly better with ExpressVPN as it uses RSA-4096 encryption against NordVPN’s RSA-2048 encryption.
Perfect Forward Secrecy changes encryption keys at every log-in session to ensure that there any future data is not compromised. NordVPN and ExpressVPN both employ Perfect Forward Secrecy meaning it’s less likely your online data will get decrypted.
When it comes to protocols, ExpressVPN supports PPTP, IKEv2, OpenVPN, L2TP, and its new VPN protocol Lightway. Although ExpressVPN advises users not to use PPTP, it explains the pros of each VPN protocol on its website.
ExpressVPN always removes the difficulty of people having to choose a protocol by having default protocols selected for each of its apps. Lightway is an exciting development, and although this protocol is only available for Android users and routers, it demonstrates a step up with regard to speed and security.
NordVPN offers the same protocols as ExpressVPN with the exception of Lightway. In its place is Nord’s very own NordLynx protocol. This protocol is a slightly advanced version of the WireGuard protocol, which is edging out OpenVPN and IKEv2 in terms of security and connection speed.
DNS-leak protection is an important security aspect of a VPN. DNS requests from websites can lead your ISP and third parties to see what websites you visit. Fortunately, both ExpressVPN and NordVPN are DNS and IP-leak proof. The combination of these features ensures your online activity and real location always stay private.
Last, but certainly not least, is the inclusion of a kill switch. A kill switch is an essential online security feature of any VPN, and we wouldn’t recommend a provider that doesn’t offer one. If your VPN connection drops, you switch between wi-fi networks, or your internet connection is faltering, a kill switch will come into action and cut off your internet connection completely. This means you won’t continuing browsing without encryption.
NordVPN provides users with two versions of its kill switch, one for Windows and the other for Android, iOS, and OS systems. With Nord, you can also choose which apps you want to be protected by the kill switch, allowing you to customize the use of this feature slightly.
ExpressVPN has the Network Lock, its own version of the kill switch. The great thing about ExpressVPN’s Network Lock is that it is enabled upon download, so you don’t need to remember to activate it. It’s available on the majority of operating systems including Windows, Mac, Android, Linux, and routers. However, the Network Lock is currently not available for iOS systems, which is disappointing.
The winner: It’s an extremely close call when it comes to security features offered by the two VPN Titans. ExpressVPN offers slightly better encryption, but NordVPN performs better in areas such as protocol options.
|Type of IP
|No. of servers
|No. of Geolocations
|Amazon Fire TV
|Barnes & Noble Nook HD
|WD TV Live
|Zero Data Logging
|Free Version / Trial
|Price Starting At:
|8.32 $ / monthly
|Read review Sign Up
|3.29 $ / monthly
|Read review Sign Up
It’s obvious that both ExpressVPN and NordVPN have a lot to offer in terms of security. However, extra features are often what make a VPN popular with users. Luckily, there is no shortage of impressive features when it comes to both of these providers. So, let’s look at NordVPN vs ExpressVPN when it comes to extra features.
ExpressVPN, NordVPN, and a whole host of other providers offer users unlimited bandwidth. There are some VPNs that have data limits, but these are usually free VPNs. Unlimited data is important since it allows people to carry out as many online tasks as they want under the safety of VPN encryption. What’s more, without a data limit, internet speeds are often a lot higher.
Torrenting, streaming, and gaming aren’t slowed down at all thanks to the limitless bandwidth offered by both of these VPN providers.
NordVPN edges out ExpressVPN slightly when it comes to the number of simultaneous connections each VPN provider offers. While ExpressVPN provides its users with 5 simultaneous connections, NordVPN offers 6 device connections at the same time.
However, both ExpressVPN and NordVPN provide users with the option to set up a VPN on a router. This allows people to essentially bypass the device connection limit, as any device connected to the router will automatically benefit from VPN protection. On the NordVPN site and ExpressVPN site, there are detailed guides on how users can connect VPNs to routers and enjoy security across more devices.
An IP address is a unique combination of letters and numbers that identifies each and every device. When you connect to a VPN server, your real IP address will be masked and you’ll surf the net using a different IP address. A lot of servers offer shared IPs, but these can be problematic as other users can get IPs blocked, and certain websites can blacklist unknown IP addresses.
NordVPN offers users the option of a static or dedicated IP address. This means that each user gets a new, and unique IP address, that only they use. If you do a lot of online banking or need to access corporate networks and websites, a dedicated IP is a great option.
Unfortunately, ExpressVPN doesn’t as of now offer a dedicated IP address option. However, on the ExpressVPN site, the provider states that it regularly rotates its IP addresses so that users aren’t linked to just one. This means that every time you connect to one of Express’s VPN servers, you’ll get a new IP. It’s disappointing to see that Express doesn’t match up to NordVPN in this area, but it’s good to know the provider rotates the IP addresses it uses.
Split tunneling is not an essential VPN feature but it is one that here at VPNSurfers, we like to see. Not every VPN user wants to encrypt all of their internet traffic, which is why split tunneling comes in useful. Split tunneling allows users to decide which websites or apps they want to access via the encrypted VPN tunnel, and which they want to use through their regular internet network.
ExpressVPN allows users to configure the split tunneling settings on the Windows and Mac clients and has an easy-to-follow guide on its website to help users implement this feature. NordVPN also lets users decide which of their data is encrypted or not, but only offers split tunneling on its browser extensions and on the iOS and Android mobile apps.
For VPN novices, choosing the best VPN server and learning how to properly use a VPN to suit your needs can be difficult. Luckily, both NordVPN and ExpressVPN offer ways to connect users to the best VPN servers for them.
With ExpressVPN, users can click on the Smart Connect button on the Express client and app. This connects users to the best server in terms of proximity and speed. Nord has a similar feature called Quick Connect, which is also available on all of its apps.
Both VPNs have a host of other app features to make using a VPN as easy as possible for users. There is the VPN pause option on NordVPN apps, which allows people to pause the VPN for a specific amount of time. This is super useful, especially for forgetful people who may not remember to switch back on their VPN.
The winner: In terms of extra features, NordVPN slightly outperforms ExpressVPN. Nord offers extra connections and a dedicated IP option which is a desirable feature for many VPN customers.
The most common reason why people use VPNs is to protect their online privacy. ISPs (Internet Service Providers), websites, and governments can keep an eye on what we get up to online, restricting our personal freedom. VPNs provide a way for users to keep their online activity secure, but there are some VPN providers that store user data and use it for personal gain.
We’ve taken a close look at both NordVPN and ExpressVPN and both providers have strong no-logs policies. When it comes to ExpressVPN, its logging policy is brief but clear; the provider will never store connection logs or activity data transferred. However, ExpressVPN stores some information about which app you use to connect to a VPN server, the location of said server, the date you use the VPN service, and your daily bandwidth usage.
NordVPN has a seemingly more strict no-logs policy. Unlike ExpressVPN, NordVPN doesn’t store connection timestamps, connection logs, or data usage. Nord also doesn’t collect traffic data or original IP addresses, masking your true location and identity.
Although both NordVPN and ExpressVPN store email addresses at the time of sign up, this isn’t too much of a deal, especially since users can create a separate email account solely for their VPN use. Likewise, both Nord and Express collect payment information, but paying by cryptocurrency can help you to remain anonymous. You can buy an ExpressVPN subscription with Bitcoin or pay for NordVPN using Bitcoin, Ripple, or Ethereum.
Countries aren’t just an important factor when it comes to a VPN company and its server locations. A VPN provider’s headquarters can affect the way data is collected, or what providers may be forced to do with user information.
ExpressVPN is based in the British Virgin Islands while NordVPN has its headquarters in Panama. Both of these countries enjoy some of the best data retention laws in the world. Other countries such as the USA have strict data laws, which means VPN companies have to hand over server data whenever requested.
What’s more, both the British Virgin Islands and Panama fall outside of the Five Eyes jurisdiction. The Five Eyes alliance is an organization of several countries around the world that share citizen information with one another in the name of international security. The famous whistleblower, Edward Snowden, leaked data in 2013 that showed which countries were a part of this alliance.
So, it is reassuring to know that ExpressVPN and NordVPN are located in relatively safe territories when it comes to protecting the privacy of their users.
Security and privacy often go hand in hand, but there are several features of ExpressVPN and NordVPN that cater more to user privacy. For customers who really want to hide their true location and have complete online anonymity, they can enjoy the Double VPN option offered by NordVPN.
Double VPN tunnels your data through two NordVPN servers, essentially offering an extra layer of encryption to your internet activity. NordVPN also offers the Onion over VPN option, also known as the Tor over VPN, which is another way of connecting to several servers in order to better encrypt your data.
Unfortunately, ExpressVPN doesn’t have a Double VPN option or support Onion over VPN which is disappointing for some users who prefer to connect to the Tor network for extra online anonymity. However, this doesn’t mean that ExpressVPN doesn’t support torrenting at all. Both providers offer support for this activity with a number of servers dedicated to torrenting
The winner: NordVPN vs ExpressVPN: Privacy, is difficult to call. Both ExpressVPN and NordVPN are located in advantageous jurisdictions that have great data privacy laws. Both providers have fantastic logging-policies that don’t abuse user data. However, NordVPN goes the extra mile in terms of privacy. Nord offers customers the Double VPN feature and Tor over VPN option, which we believe will appeal to a wider range of VPN users.
Server networks is an important aspect of any VPN provider and a major deciding factor for many customers. A lot of people want a server in a specific country so that they can bypass geo-restrictions or watch foreign Netflix libraries. Others like a VPN with a larger network of servers since it usually means better connection speeds and less server traffic. Here’s the rundown on ExpressVPN vs NordVPN when it comes to servers.
ExpressVPN has servers in 94 countries whereas NordVPN has servers in 59 countries. However, NordVPN offers its users a network of 5510+ servers while ExpressVPN only provides just over 3000.
When it comes to server location, both providers do a good job of covering Europe, South, Central, and North America, Asia, and the Middle East. ExpressVPN has a higher number of servers in popular countries such as the USA and the UK. For example, Express has four servers in the UK, while Nord has just one.
What’s more, ExpressVPN has a few more servers in Africa, a continent that is usually neglected by VPN providers. While NordVPN only has one African server, in South Africa, ExpressVPN has servers in Kenya and South Africa, and also in Northern African countries such as Algeria. It’s good to know that ExpressVPN offers a little more coverage in this often forgotten part of the world. However, at VPNSurfers, we’d like to see extra servers added in this continent so that more people can enjoy VPN services.
As mentioned in the security section, NordVPN suffered a security breach on one of its servers a few years ago. This led to Nord ramping up its security and server technologies in a bid to prevent further attacks from hackers.
On the NordVPN site and ExpressVPN site, there is a list of every single server and the protocols each server supports. While all of NordVPN’s servers support NordLynx, IKEv2/IPSec, and OpenVPN, not all of the protocols offered by ExpressVPN can be used on each of its servers. For example, the L2TP/IPSec protocol is not supported by several ExpressVPN servers across its large network. However, the protocols which provide more advanced security including OpenVPN and Lightway are supported on every ExpressVPN server.
ExpressVPN and NordVPN use virtual and physical servers. Virtual servers have the IP address of your chosen country but are located elsewhere. This can be for a number of reasons: virtual servers are cheaper and easier to manage, and also provide extra safety since some places (like China) are considered an unsafe territory to store a physical server.
However, a lot of users don’t trust virtual servers. Virtual servers are more vulnerable as they can be more easily accessed by third parties, and for this reason, are an offputting feature of many VPN providers.
On ExpressVPN’s site, the provider states that while it has virtual servers, less than 3% of its network is made up of them. Contrastingly, NordVPN doesn’t list any virtual servers on its site, and we’re under the impression at VPNSurfers that Nord only employs the use of physical servers. This may explain why ExpressVPN has servers located in more ‘dangerous’ locations than NordVPN.
Volatile RAM memory is the preferred option over hard drive memory storage. This is because RAM memory is easier to wipe. Every time a server is switched off, the data stored on it is also removed. However, there are a few extra steps involved when it comes to wiping hard drive memory.
In the not-so-distant past, both NordVPN and ExpressVPN were running almost entirely on hard drive memory. This is a bigger security risk than RAM memory since data can be more easily accessed on hard drive servers. However, as of very recently, both ExpressVPN and NordVPN have moved over to completely RAM disk mode servers. This means no information is ever stored locally, signaling a massive leap forward for both providers in terms of protecting user privacy.
The winner: When it comes to servers, NordVPN has over 2000 more than Express. However, ExpressVPN has a lot of server locations and seems to cater more to frequently ignored continents like Africa. Both providers use RAM server memory and offer a good overall VPN service with regards to servers.
It’s great to have a VPN with first-rate security features and a good selection of servers, but if speeds are slow, then it can really affect your overall VPN experience. We ran several connection speed tests using both ExpressVPN and NordVPN in order to see which is the fastest VPN.
ExpressVPN: ExpressVPN comes out on top when it comes to the best internet speed. Although our download speed did drop slightly, it was still considerably faster than many other providers that we have tested. On average, our download speed across servers dropped by about 15%, which isn’t too much in the grand scheme of things. A speed loss is expected, but when we were online we didn’t notice it affect our internet connection at all.
Ping was low across all of the ExpressVPN servers that we tested indicating that ExpressVPN would be good for gamers as well. Our lowest ping was in the USA, a gaming hub. Although there aren’t specific servers for torrenting, the speeds are good enough for users to connect to any server and download and share files. Watching buffer-free TV on streaming sites is also a possibility with ExpressVPN as the speeds are fast enough for you to connect to a distant server and still enjoy an HD quality picture.
NordVPN: Like ExpressVPN, NordVPN is also well-known for its fast speeds. The introduction of the NordLynx protocol onto its servers has improved the connection speed for many users around the world. Our baseline download speed was 98 Mbps, and when we connected to a New York NordVPN server for our speed tests, we got a great result of 82 Mbps. This isn’t much of a drop at all and indicates that Nord is good for streaming and gaming as well.
Although we had more of a drop when we connected to foreign servers, such as 50-55 Mbps with German and UK servers, this is overall still a decent speed and not too much of a fall. We were also able to access British Netflix and BBC iPlayer without any buffering or issues related to speed. Our NordVPN review goes into more detail on the provider’s speeds.
The winner: Overall it’s hard to say which provider is the best when it comes to speed. Nord’s WireGuard protocol, NordLynx, delivered some very impressive results that resulted in a fast VPN connection but ExpressVPN had all-around lightning-fast speeds.
Client design can play a big role in whether or not a VPN provider is popular. Not all of us are experts when it comes to VPN technology, so a well-designed and easy-to-use mobile app or desktop client makes all the difference to the overall user experience.
Both ExpressVPN and NordVPN have dedicated apps for the systems they support. You can download these apps from the provider’s websites or other places such as the App Store or the Google Play Store.
The entire download and installation process with the NordVPN app takes less than five minutes, and many of the settings are configured upon download. The app and VPN client features a light blue map with server locations shown. Users can either choose a server from the map or bring up a list to find a server in the country they want.
In the NordVPN sidebar, users can choose to connect to specialized servers such as Double VPN servers or P2P servers. In the settings, you can easily toggle on or off extra features like the kill switch. It’s also made clear whether you’re connected to a VPN server or not, with the large on/off switch at the top of the app. Of course, the design varies depending on whether you’re using a computer or a phone but it’s simple and functional on each version.
ExpressVPN’s interface is a lot more basic when compared to NordVPN’s mobile apps and desktop apps. The main screen features a large power button, again showing users whether they are connected or not. Users can use the Smart Connect button or choose from a list of locations. While ExpressVPN’s mobile app and desktop clients don’t have as much style, we like that many important features, such as the Network Lock, are activated automatically. This means people don’t have to spend a lot of time in the app settings to switch it on.
The winner: NordVPN has a more user-friendly app and client, which makes it simpler for users to access all of the VPN services it offers. We like the simple blue design and the interactive map which makes choosing a server more fun. What’s more, the app is easy to use across all platforms, and we have to give props to Nord for creating a great mobile VPN app, as it can be hard to achieve this.
VPN technology provides you with a way to access censored content from all corners of the globe. IP addresses give away a device’s location to websites, which can then block you from watching or reading certain content. Many people use a VPN to unblock streaming services such as Netflix and BBC iPlayer. However, Netflix is famous for its VPN block. Netflix has different libraries depending on the territory in which you live, and due to licensing rules, works hard to prevent people in other countries from accessing foreign content.
ExpressVPN and NordVPN are two of the best VPNs for bypassing geo-blocks, and both have gotten past Netflix’s VPN firewall. This is because the two providers both use obfuscated servers. Obfuscated servers hide the fact that you’re using a VPN, which helps to get past VPN blockers. These special servers also work well in China, which is why NordVPN and ExpressVPN can both bypass The Great Firewall of China.
NordVPN lists the specialty servers which can unblock Netflix on its website. It can help users to access a wide range of foreign Netflix libraries from the US, including Canada, Germany, the UK, Italy, France, Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Finland, and India.
Although not listed on ExpressVPN’s website, we know from our tests that Express also unlocks a long list of foreign Netflix libraries. We tested it in the UK and in Japan and were able to get through both times and enjoy Netflix without any issues.
It’s important to remember that streaming platforms such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, and many more are always developing their technology to prevent VPNs such as NordVPN, ExpressVPN, and more from getting past their blocks. Luckily, Express and Nord are two providers at the forefront of fighting the firewalls imposed by streaming sites to continue to permit users to watch online content with restrictions.
The winner: NordVPN can access more streaming service libraries than ExpressVPN, but both are great options if you want a VPN in order to level up your Netflix and chill nights.
A VPN is essential for fans of torrenting. If you’re accessing file-sharing platforms such as BitTorrent then you could be exposing yourself to many risks. Although torrenting is legal, by sharing copyrighted files, you could get into serious legal trouble. At VPNSurfers, we don’t recommend torrenting for illegal purposes. However, if you insist on doing so, then you’ll need a VPN.
A VPN will mask your real IP address, essentially hiding your true identity and providing you with anonymity. Your ISP won’t be able to see what you’re doing, and all data exchanged during torrenting will remain encrypted. ExpressVPN supports torrenting, which means you can use this provider if you torrent often. Express also offers unlimited bandwidth, meaning there is no limit to the amount you can download.
With NordVPN, not only can you torrent but you can access specific P2P servers. These are easily found in the specialty server list on the Nord app. The P2P servers ensure that your data is always encrypted, and they also offer faster speeds, making them perfect for torrenting.
NordVPN also offers Tor over VPN, which we have already looked at in this NordVPN vs ExpressVPN review. Tor allows users to tunnel their data through more servers and this creates an extra layer of protection. This means that even your VPN provider won’t be able to see what you’ve downloaded.
The winner: While it is great that both providers support torrenting, NordVPN offers more advanced services to torrenting fans. With P2P servers and Tor over VPN, it’s clear that Nord is catering to the needs of a particular group of VPN users.
There’s only one thing that truly matters when it comes to comparing two VPNs with regard to gaming: speed. As we outlined in the speed section of this review, NordVPN and ExpressVPN are two of the fastest VPNs out there. With consistent low ping, it seems that both VPNs would work well for gaming and cause no latency during gameplay.
What’s more, due to the large server networks both providers offer, users would have access to geo-blocked content and early releases of their favorite games. Both Nord and Express offer protection against DDoS attacks. These attacks are common in the world of gaming, and occur when one player tries to overload the server of his or her opponent, causing them to crash out of the game. ExpressVPN and NordVPN assure users that their servers can withstand these attacks and prevent them from causing any problems to gamers.
The winner: For us, it seems that Express and Nord are equal when it comes to gaming. NordVPN offers more servers, but both providers have server locations in popular gaming territories.
Price is always a deciding factor when it comes to any product. At VPNSurfers, we feel as though the price reflects the quality of VPN services on offer. Both NordVPN and ExpressVPN are at the higher end of VPN prices, but with good reason. As two of the most popular VPNs out there, they can both afford to sell their services at a higher price.
ExpressVPN: The one-month plan costs $12.95 a month. The six-month plan is $59.95 and the one-year plan price is $99.95. All of these are fairly expensive, even for VPNs. There is no free trial, but users have a 30-day money-back guarantee that gives them the chance to try out Express.
NordVPN: NordVPN is a little cheaper than ExpressVPN. For the one-month plan, you will pay $11.95 per month. The year plan is $69, or $4.92 monthly, and the two-year plan is only $89, which works out to a great value for money $3.71 per month. Like Express, there is a 30-day money-back guarantee.
The winner: NordVPN is without a doubt better value for money. Although both have a similarly priced monthly plan and offer a 30-day money-back guarantee, NordVPN’s two-year plan is cheaper than ExpressVPN’s one-year plan. By going with Nord, you can get an extra year for a lower price. So, if the price is a big factor for you, we’d recommend NordVPN.
With a handful of simultaneous device connections between them, ExpressVPN and NordVPN support several operating systems. Both are compatible with Windows, Mac, Android, Linux, and iOS and offer native VPN apps. If you have Windows 10 then you can connect both of these VPNs to your PC operating system through Window’s very own VPN platform.
As well as the above, users can connect ExpressVPN and NordVPN to their routers, protecting every single device that is connected to the internet network. Both providers offer a Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome browser extension, with ExpressVPN developing a browser extension for Microsoft Edge users as well.
The winner: Although ExpressVPN offers an extra browser extension option for users, we feel that both providers are pretty evenly matched when it comes to the operating systems they work on.
Customer service can affect the overall user experience. Firstly, both ExpressVPN and NordVPN offer a lot of information on their websites in the form of ‘how-to’ guides and FAQs which provide a lot of information. As well as extensive support centers, there are other customer service features. Both providers have 24/7 live chat support. We tested out the live chat on both and were impressed by the reply time and the knowledgeable representative on the other end of the chat.
The live chat option isn’t the only way to speak to get help with a difficult issue. With NordVPN, users can send an email and receive a reasonably fast reply. Social media features on both providers’ websites, and is also an option for customers to get in touch with a member of the support team, although this would probably be the most ineffective.
The winner: Overall, the customer support services are decent from both providers. We like the fact that there is an email option for NordVPN customers, who may need a very detailed response. However, the tutorials and ‘how-to’ guides offered by both providers help give users an overall positive experience.
So, which is better NordVPN or ExpressVPN? Although both VPN services are first-rate, and undeniably the best in the business, we think that NordVPN is the best 2020 VPN provider. This is due to a number of reasons. Firstly it has a higher number of servers, which equals more possibilities to bypass geo-blocks. Secondly, it offers more features on a wider variety of apps and clients. It also is cheaper than ExpressVPN.
Although NordVPN suffered a security breach a few years ago, we trust in its ability as a safe VPN provider. However, if this is a major issue for you and something you can’t overlook, then ExpressVPN is the VPN you should choose. It has never suffered a server breach (that we know of) and is similar to Nord in terms of the transparency of its safety.